Summary of German Hard Power

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German Hard Power summary
Germany’s deep ambivalence about the use of hard power leaves Europe’s economic powerhouse vulnerable.


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Germany, the economic and political powerhouse of the Continent, should be the guiding force for Europe’s resurgence as a strategic global player. But Germany evinces a deeply ambivalent attitude regarding its defense forces. Security expert Patrick Keller examines why, but he underestimates the complexity of German opposition. Nevertheless, getAbstract commends Keller’s article for the depth of his analysis.

In this summary, you will learn

  • How Germany has failed to take its place as Europe’s hard-power leader,
  • Why German policy makers can’t agree on a future role for the country’s defense forces and
  • How Germany’s involvement in Afghanistan manifests its ambivalence regarding matters of defense.


No other developed nation is as conflicted about the use of hard power as Germany. The country’s ambivalence about deploying force for political ends stems from its profound historical guilt. Germany – Europe’s economic and political powerhouse – is the obvious candidate to lead Europe in defense and...
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About the Author

Patrick Keller is a national security expert at the Konrad Adenauer Foundation.

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