Summary of The Uses of Pessimism

And the Danger of False Hope

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The Uses of Pessimism book summary
Spot the fallacies that distort your thinking.


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This unusual book purports to present the utility of pessimism, though “skepticism” might be a more accurate description. English philosopher and author Roger Scruton delves into the mechanisms that drive society. To avoid calamitous fallacies, so he contends, society needs a dose of pessimism leavened with respect for conventional laws and traditional civic solutions. He harks to a rightist point of view, but those people who also hold traditional conservative values may wonder at his approach. Even when his points are well taken, his tone is critical and his language is circuitous. He cites great thinkers to make his case, both demonstrating command of the canon and ferociously attacking a host of talk-radio hobgoblins, including affirmative action, immigration reform and – a bit further out on a limb – Islam, John Maynard Keynes and Jimmy Carter. He relishes demolishing fallacies, but sometimes goes too far, tipping into soapboxing and recasting factual conclusions to fit his argument. While he may deserve credit for being fearless about political correctness, some matters – like basic equality – are PC for a reason, and yet he tramples on them for good or ill. His answer to world problems is to urge making the best of reality and sticking with standard virtues, but he’s pretty much given up on a brighter tomorrow. While always politically neutral, getAbstract suggests that this self-confident, if polemical, challenge to conventional wisdom offers a distinctly alternative point of view.

In this summary, you will learn

  • Why economic policies need some pessimism to counter “unscrupulous optimism,”
  • What common fallacies distort people’s thinking, and
  • Why tradition and half measures are better than big, utopian ideas.


Too Much Hope, Too Much Pessimism
The most dangerous threats facing civilization stem from a series of fallacies based in humanity’s prehistoric and tribal past. These ideas drive people’s behavior in their working and social lives. The same concepts inform the decisions of “unscrupulous...
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About the Author

Roger Scruton is an English philosopher known for his studies of aesthetics. His previous books include Art and Imagination, Sexual Desire and The Meaning of Conservatism.

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    Wim Kloek 9 months ago
    For controlled change you need both the optimist and the pessimist. I do not know which category is more scarce and how to establish a reasonable balance between the two. The book seems to argue mostly against un-controlled optimism. I am not sure that that is currently our main problem. Still, several of the ideas seem to be interesting to reflect on; this is not a conformist book (in the positive sense).

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