Summary of From Start-Up to Scale-Up

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High-growth companies, particularly in technology, the life sciences and biotech, have driven American innovation and economic dynamism for several decades. More recently, Canada and Europe have come to match the United States in the number of start-ups. But experts Gilles Duruflé, Thomas Hellmann and Karen Wilson look beyond the start-up phase to analyze the structural differences among the “scale-up ecosystems” of the United States, Canada and Europe. getAbstract recommends this comprehensive and accessible report to entrepreneurs, investors, policy makers and financiers for its blueprint on preparing the next generation of tech giants.

In this summary, you will learn

  • How start-ups become “scale-ups”;
  • What financing sources are available to these firms;
  • How the “scale-up ecosystem” differs in the United States, Canada and Europe; and
  • How public policy can support scale-up growth.

About the Authors

Gilles Duruflé heads the QCC Public Policy Forum on Venture Capital and Innovation. Thomas Hellmann is a professor at the University of Oxford. Karen Wilson is a senior fellow at Bruegel.



Once a start-up successfully establishes a market presence and experiences rapid growth, it becomes a “scale-up.” At this juncture, its executives must decide whether to keep the company in private hands, issue stock in an initial public offering (IPO) or find a buyer. This choice influences the decisions scale-ups will make in all aspects of their businesses.

Scale-ups wanting to remain independent seek funding from “venture equity” sources, which include corporations, institutional investors and venture capitalists...

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