Sand is the most significant material in the world.
You may think sand is the most ordinary substance, useful for recreational spots like beaches, but in fact it’s necessary for the greater part of the world most people live in today. If you consider how you live and work on an average day, much of what you do relies on sand. The buildings you live and work in, for example, contain vast amounts of concrete, of which sand is a foundational material. Sand is a crucial material in the windows you gaze out of in your office or living room. They are glass, which is made of sand, as are the roads and sidewalks you drive and walk on, and the shopping malls you visit. The chips that make your smartphone, iPad and laptop intelligent and useful require sand.
Sand makes 21st-century life possible. But sand has become scarce, and people pursue it fiercely. Earth’s population keeps growing, and people need more and more sand to live and work, especially in today’s digital, globalized economy.
The invention of concrete – which sand and gravel comprise – transformed the way people live.
The invention of concrete fundamentally changed human life as much as fire and electricity...