Summary of Older and Smaller

Looking for the article?
We have the summary! Get the key insights in just 5 minutes.

Older and Smaller summary


8 Overall

9 Importance

8 Innovation

7 Style


As more people live longer and fewer people have babies, the world’s population will shrink and become older. International Monetary Fund economists Benedict Clements, Kamil Dybczak and Mauricio Soto examine the disturbing implications of this trend. While several previous studies have explored the financial consequences of aging populations on various countries by 2050, this article provides a valuable look at the problem across 100 nations by 2100, when the world will face the “full effects of the demographic transitions.” getAbstract recommends this eye-opening report to economists, government officials and business executives.

In this summary, you will learn

  • What growth projections for fertility and mortality rates imply,
  • How an aging population will affect the finances of both developed and emerging economies, and
  • How governments can soften the impact of age-related spending in coming years.

About the Authors

Benedict Clements is a division chief at the International Monetary Fund’s Fiscal Affairs Department, where Kamil Dybczak and Mauricio Soto are economists.



Aging populations present an urgent challenge to the fiscal health of both emerging and developed economies. With fertility and mortality rates dropping around the world, the problem is likely to worsen over the next several decades. The United Nations forecasts that the global population will stop ...

Comment on this summary

More on this topic

By the same authors

Customers who read this summary also read

More by category