Summary of The Technological and Economic Prospects for CO2 Utilization and Removal

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The Technological and Economic Prospects for CO2 Utilization and Removal summary

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As human activities release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air, the search is on for ways to reduce this load and thus minimize adverse consequences to a warming world. This perspective takes a comprehensive look at the potential of 10 strategies for turning CO2  into useful products based on a review of more than 11,000 scientific papers as well as interviews with experts. In addition to reviewing technical and economic considerations, it summarizes the obstacles that need to be overcome and recommends concrete steps going forward to make the most of the opportunities offered.

About the Authors

Cameron Hepburn, Ella Adlen, John Beddington, Emily A. Carter, Sabine Fuss, Niall Mac Dowell, Jan C. Minx, Pete Smith and Charlotte K. Williams work with research institutions in the United Kingdom, United States and Germany.


Technologies that store carbon dioxide (CO2) can mitigate climate change while making useful products.

The uses of “conventional” COinclude producing chemicals and fuels, growing microalgae to be used in fuel or fish food, making concrete, and injecting CO2 into the ground to enhance oil recovery.

“Non-conventional” approaches include using COto grow plants for bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), capturing COin rocks, growing trees, capturing carbon in soil, and producing biochar.


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